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Teach Soap • View topic - If you are a newbie to CP soap, please read!

Teach Soap

Soap Making Recipes, Tips and Tutorials
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PostPosted: Fri May 28, 2010 8:51 pm 
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Here is a lye calculator that will tell you the properties of oils, so you can tell right away if the recipe that you are playing with is usable. http://www.soapcalc.net/calc/soapcalcWP.asp


Lye will etch the glass creating micro tears. One day your glass will shatter. This is very dangerous.
Stainless steel or heavy duty plastic is ok.

Here are your basic utensils and such to get you started.
- Goggles
- Gloves
- Digital Scale (Up to 11lbs weighs in both grams & ounces)
- Stick Blender
- Measuring cups (don't use plastic for fragrances or essential oils)
- One Plastic Pitcher for Lye/Water mixing
- Long Plastic Spoon for mixing Lye Water
- Non Metallic Bucket for mixing everything together
- Stainless Steel Pot or a crock pot for cooking
- Parchment or Wax Paper
- Silicone Scrapper
- Thermometer

Don't forget to cover your working area with newspapers in case of drops of raw soap.

Just a couple of batches under your belt is not enough to start to sell. You will need to be able to properly formulate a recipe. Know how well that recipe will do 3 months down the road, or 6 months down the road. Read up on properties of oils and what they add to your soap. Know which oils will make a soap hard and which soft. Read up on each oil's shelf life. Some oils have a short shelf life and can be prone to oxidation or DOS (dreaded orange spots). You should not be selling soap that zaps. That could be a serious liability issue.

Please keep your pets or kids out of your soap making area. Make sure that you have all the proper safety equipment and gear. This includes goggles (or a face shield), long sleeve shirt, long pants and shoes (not flip flops or sandals with open toes). Plastic or rubber gloves are a must too. Have a jug of water nearby if you get some lye crystals or flakes on you. Lye can seriously injure you or burn you. Please respect it. Always. ALWAYS run your recipe through a lye calculator, even if you got the recipe from a book. Mistakes do happen. One of the calculators that I use is The Sage: http://www.thesage.com/calcs/lyecalc2.php
Another one is right here at BrambleBerry> http://www.brambleberry.com/Pages/Lye-Calculator.aspx

Have an accurate scale. Both ounces and grams is preferable, especially for those small batches. Cups are NOT accurate enough to soap with. You need accurate measurement, so your soap isn't lye heavy. You can make soap in a heavy duty plastic pitcher if you are just starting out. When you start making bigger batches a stainless steel pot is invaluable. Get yourself a stick blender. It will save you valuable time mixing the soap. Do not use a wooden spoon. Over time, the lye will weaken the wood in that spoon and splinters could end up in your soap.

Start small and simple. As a new soaper, I realize that you want to try many things, but get a basic formula down before ading extra things like color, spices, oatmeal or goat's milk. Know what trace looks like. Research which fragrance or essential oils are safe to soap with and in what percentages. Study which fragrance oils or essential oils accelerate trace, so you are prepared.

4-6 weeks of curing cannot be rushed. Do not try a dehydrator. It doesn't work and will make your soap melt. If you are doing hot process or CPOP (cold process - oven process), wait a minimum of one week to give water a chance to evaporate. The longer you can wait, the harder the soap will be and longer it will last in the tub or shower.

Apply for a reseller permit if your county requires it and a business license. Get a liability insurance. Try the Soapmakers Guild or RLI. Each one is available on the net. Don't think just because you are only giving soap to friends, or selling soap to your coworkers that you won't need liability insurance for that. You do need it; even then. People are sue happy and you could loose your house or worse.

I'm sure that you will be proud of your creation(s), so please list the ingredients on your label. Technically you don't have to, but it's always nice to have them on your label, in case of someone that has allergies to certain ingredients.

Here are some links to get you started:
Explanation of soaps and recipes: http://www.millersoap.com/
Our forum owners soapmaking methods: http://www.teachsoap.com/soapmakingmethods.html
More recipes (check them on a lye calculator!) http://www.soapnuts.com/indexcp.html

Here are some soapmaking books to learn more and read about:
The Everything Soapmaking by Alicia Grosso
Natural Soap Book: Herb & Vegetable Soap by Susan Miller Cavitch
Natural Soapmaking by Marie Browning
The Soaper's Cook Book: Soapmaking in your oven, on the stove or in your crockpot!
By Coleen French and TJ Currey
The Soapmakers Companion by Susan Miller Cavitch

And it's a good idea to purchase a good book about soap and cosmetic regulations:
Soap and Cosmetic Labeling - How to Follow The Rules and Regs Explained in Plain English
by Marie Gale

You can find basic soapmaking supplies at BrambleBerry along with lots of fragrances, colors essential oils, redy to use bases for rebatching, molds and much more: http://www.brambleberry.com/

One other thing I would like to mention; adding an oil or butter at trace is no guarantee that your soap will be superfatted with that particluar ingredient. Soap at trace is still quite active and the lye will take whatever it wants. So add all your oils and butters right up front to your recipe and add/melt everything
together. I also add me fragrance or essential oil to my melted soapmaking oils. There is no need to add these at trace either.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Thu Jun 17, 2010 1:00 pm 
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Here are some soapmaking oils and their shelf life.

Apricot Kernel 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Avocado approx 1 year, keep in cool place
Calendula 6 months to 1 year. According to what oil is used for the infusion
Canola 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Castor approx 1 year, keep in cool place
Cocoa Butter 1 year +, keep in cool place
Coconut 1 year +, keep in cool place
Corn 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Emu 1 year room temp, 3+ frozen
Evening Primrose 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Flaxseed Oil 3 to 6 months refrigerated
Grape seed 3 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Hempseed 3 months refrigerated, 9months frozen
Jojoba Indefinite. Jojoba is not an oil, but a liquid wax.
Mango Butter 1 year, longer if refrigerated
Neem approx 1 year, keep in cool place
Olive 2 years, keep in cool place
Palm approx 1 year, keep in cool place
Peanut 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Safflower approx 1 year, keep in cool place
Sesame 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Shea Butter 1 year, longer if refrigerated
Soybean 3 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Sunflower 3 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Sweet Almond 6 months to 1 year, keep in cool place
Walnut approx 3 months, keep in cool place
Wheatgerm Oil approx 6 months, keep in cool place

Most oils need a very very high temperature before they break down.
Beeswax melting point is 147 °F, which doesn't degrade it. However, the flash point would 400 °F.

Most other oils actually degrade at even higher temperatures than beeswax.
In cooking they call that point the "Smoking point" which is when the properties of the oils are changing. Which makes sense, cause if it's giving off fumes, then obviously something is leaving the oil.

I found this list of oils sorted by what temperature they start to degrade at.

So we can see canola oil degrades at a very low temperature compared to most or all oils. lol
I remember soapbuddy mentioning that she always got DOS with canola, but I think soapbuddy also uses beeswax in her recipes because if helps keep the ash down. (Am I right?)
So, that said, I can definitely see how that was a possibility, since the degrading point of canola, and the melting point of beeswax are so close together. 147 °F and 225°F. It's still a big gap, but heck, it's not hard to get it up there.

List sorted by temperatures at which the oils begin to degrade or smoke.

225 F: Canola Oil, Unrefined
: Flaxseed Oil, Unrefined
: Safflower Oil, Unrefined
: Sunflower Oil, Unrefined
320 F: Corn Oil, Unrefined
: High-Oleic Sunflower Oil,
: Olive Oil, Unrefined
: Peanut Oil, Unrefined
: Safflower Oil, Semi-Refined
: Soy Oil, Unrefined
: Walnut Oil, Unrefined

325 F: Shortening, Emulsified

330 F: Hemp Seed Oil¥¥

350 F: Butter (Good Eats)
: Canola Oil, Semi-Refined
: Coconut Oil†
: Sesame Oil, Unrefined
: Soy Oil, Semi-Refined
356-370 F: Vegetable Shortening
361-401 F: Lard
375 F: Olive Oil (Good Eats)
389 F: Macadamia Nut Oil††
400 F: Canola Oil, Refined
: Walnut Oil, Semi-Refined
406 F: Olive Oil, Extra Virgin*
410 F: Corn Oil (Good Eats)
: Sesame Oil**
420 F: Cottonseed Oil†
: Grapeseed Oil¥
: Olive Oil, Virgin**
430 F: Almond Oil***
: Hazelnut Oil***
435 F: Canola Oil (Good Eats)
438 F: Olive Oil*
: Rapeseed Oil***
440 F: Peanut Oil†
: Sunflower Oil†
450 F: Corn Oil, Refined
: High-Oleic Sunflower Oil,
: Peanut Oil, Refined
(Good Eats)
: Safflower Oil, Ref.
(Good Eats)
: Sesame Oil, Semi-Refined
: Soy Oil, Refined
: Sunflower Oil, Semi-Refined
460 F: Olive Pomace Oil**
468 F: Olive Oil, Extra Light*
485 F: Grapeseed Oil**
495 F: Soy Bean Oil†
510 F: Safflower Oil†
520 F: Avocado Oil, Refined

Here's the list in Alpha

Almond Oil*** 430 F

Avocado Oil: Refined 520 F

Butter (Good Eats) 350 F

Canola Oil: Unrefined 225 F
Semi-Refined 350 F
Refined 400 F
(Good Eats) 435 F

Coconut Oil† 350 F

Corn Oil: Unrefined 320 F
(Good Eats) 410 F
Refined 450 F

Cottonseed Oil† 420 F

Flaxseed Oil, Unrefined 225 F

Hazelnut Oil*** 430 F

Hemp Seed Oil¥¥ 330 F

Grapeseed Oil¥ 420 F
Grapeseed Oil** 485 F

Lard 361-401 F

Macadamia Nut Oil†† 389 F

Olive Oil: Unrefined 320 F
(Good Eats) 375 F
Extra Virgin* 406 F
Virgin** 420 F
Olive Oil* 438 F
Pomace Oil** 460 F
Extra Light* 468 F

Peanut Oil: Unrefined 320 F
Peanut Oil† 440 F
Peanut Oil, Refined
(Good Eats) 450 F

Rapeseed Oil*** 438 F

Safflower Oil: Unrefined 225 F
Semi-Refined 320 F
Refined (Good Eats) 450 F

Safflower Oil† 510 F

Sesame Oil : Unrefined 350 F
Sesame Oil**: 410 F
Semi-Refined 450 F

Shortening, Emulsified
Vegetable† 325 F
Shortening, Vegetable 356-370 F

Soy Oil: Unrefined 320 F
Semi-Refined 350 F
Refined 450 F
Soy Oil† 495 F

Sunflower Oil†: 440 F
Unrefined 225 F
Semi-Refined 450 F

Walnut Oil, Unrefined 320 F
Semi-Refined 400 F
High-Oleic Sunflower Oil,
Unrefined 320 F
Refined 450 F

This list is from> http://www.goodeatsfanpage.com/collecte ... points.htm

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Wed Jun 15, 2011 1:20 pm 
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I thought I would update this list a little bit.
Oils like olive, tallow, lard, palm or palm kernel create a harder bar and oils like jojoba, apricot, apricot kernel, castor or almond create softer soap. Sunflower, canola, pumpkin seed and hemp seed are all high linoleic/linolenic oils and even though they can be used for soaping, make a soft, sticky soap that will get rancid fast if used at more than 10%-20% of your soaping oils.

As everyone's skin is different, what works for someone that has dry skin, might not work for the next person. Usually, soaps with a higher superfat benefit dry skin, but with that said, you can only go so far with a certain % of superfat before you end up with oily soap that's more prone to DOS (dreaded orange spots due to oxidation of oils). For people with oily skin, most handmade soaps help, but so will a good diet and using natural toners or clay masks which help soak up excess oils.

Excema or rosacea is hard to treat. Since we can't make any medical claims about the soap that we make, your best bet is to experiment and see what works for you. I would try a pure castille with no other additives, then maybe add some oatmeal for the soothing factor.

I would seriously consider purchasing Soapmaker software and playing around with it. It has a couple of basic recipes with which you can judge any experimental formulas.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Sat Jul 23, 2011 6:46 pm 
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Here is a PDF file on IFRA guidelines on EO safety.
http://www.ifraorg.org/view_document.aspx?docId=22594" IFRA Guidelines for Essential oil safety

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PostPosted: Sat Dec 17, 2011 11:28 pm 
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This is from http://home.windstream.net/familyjeans/ ... foils.html

Properties of Oils

This is a list of most commonly used oils in soapmaking - it is by no means complete, but gives a general overview of most oils and fats.

Almond Oil - produces stable lather and skin conditioning in handmade soaps. Wonderful for dry, inflamed, or irritated skin. Contains vitamins and minerals. Widely used for soaps, lotion bars, and cosmetics. Can be used as a large percentage of oils or for superfatting. (Also called Sweet Almond Oil or SAO)

Apricot Kernel Oil - this is the choice oil for most professional massage therapists. Absorbs easily into the skin - a light, moisturizing oil that is good for even the most sensitive or dry skin. Commonly used to superfat soaps.

Avocado Oil - Rich in vitamins A, D, & E as well as amino acids and protein. Wonderfully moisturizing and excellent for anyone with extremely sensitive skin. High in unsaponifiables. Most people use this in smaller quantities to superfat because of cost. Has a shorter shelf life than some other emollient oils.

Canola Oil - this oil has gotten a bad rap lately due to an Urban Legend. Canola is also known as lear oil and comes from rapeseed, a member of the mustard family. It has actually been cultivated for over 4000 years and has become popular in the last decade or so for being low in saturated fats. Its oleic acid content is almost that of olive oil. Canola contributes protein and moisturizing qualities in soap. Used alone, it would produce a soap that is too soft. Can be a cost effective oil to use in soaping when balanced with other more expensive base oils.

Castor Oil - acts as a humectant by attracting and retaining moisture to the skin. Also contributes lots of bubbles to soap - a "bubble booster". Used alone, it would create a soft, transparent soap. Castor is wonderful to superfat with, but it must be saponified if you want the added bubbles it provides. Adding castor oil to M&P or rebatched soap will *not* improve lather. Used in larger percentages in shampoo bars, but average usage is 1/2 to 1 oz per pound of base oils.

Cocoa Butter - made from the same bean as chocolate and cocoa. Cocoa butter is a by-product of making chocolate. When used in soap, it puts down a protective layer that holds moisture to the skin, acting as a softener. Also contributes to a very hard bar. Limit amounts to 15% or less of your total oils or soap could be brittle. You can use it to counteract "sticky" ingredients such as lanolin, honey, etc.

76 degree Coconut Oil - If you are going to make soap, you gotta have coconut oil! Coconut is the only oil that will lather in *any* type of water - even seawater. Solid at room temperature. (Fractionated coconut oil is liquid at room temp and is mostly used for cosmetics and lotions.) When used in the correct percentage, coconut oil is moisturizing and adds lots of fluffy lather. Limit to 20% or less of total base oils (some people are more sensitive to the potential drying effects of coconut oil, so you can use 15% thereabouts with good results). Hydrogenated coconut oil (92 degree) can also be used for soapmaking.

Corn Oil - can be used as a cost effective addition to soap recipe while providing moisturizing properties. Combine with other "hard" oils or soap will be too soft.

Cottonseed oil - most commonly combined with soy shortening (i.e. Crisco) because the composition is similar. Provides a quick and abundant lather, but a softer soap. Can be slow to saponify and prone to rancidity. This can be corrected by using a lower amount in proportion to other base oils. Contrary to popular belief, there is no greater risk of pesticide contamination when using cottonseed than any other oil.

Emu oil - made from the rendered fat of the Emu bird. The oil is transdermal meaning anything you add to it will make it more readily absorbed through the layers of the skin. Emu is non-comedogenic (won't clog pores), has a natural SPF, is hypo-allergenic and non-irritating, anti-inflammatory, helps prevent and diminish scars and stretch marks, helps to heal burns like no other oil can, reduces wrinkles, and is a wonderful emollient and moisturizer. WHEW! Is there nothing this oil can't do? I am not a fan of animal fat, but I make an exception in this case. Therapeutic grade emu is what I use but there is also a "soap grade" which has not been as thoroughly refined. You can use up to 20% in a recipe and still get a hard, well lathering bar.

Grapeseed Oil - light oil commonly used in massage oil preparations. Rich in vitamins and minerals. Can be used in soaps, lotions, creams, etc.

Hempseed Oil - made from the crushed seeds of the Cannabis sativa, aka the marijuana plant. High in protein, but very prone to rancidity. The cost is prohibative compared to other oils. Moisturizing emollient that helps heal dry skin and burns. Can be used up to 30% of your total oils in a soap recipe, but too much of this oil left unsaponified in a soap will cause it to spoil.

Jojoba oil - it's actually a liquid wax rather than an oil. Commonly used in shampoo bars for its conditioning properties, but can be used in other soaps and creams as well. Jojoba has some anti-inflammatory properties and is highly resistent to rancidity - can actually lend those properties to other oils thereby extending their shelf life as well. An extremely stable oil to have onhand for its moisturizing potential.

Lanolin - fatlike substance obtained from sheep's wool, although it is actually a wax. Known to be effective in softening dry, cracked, chapped skin. It is easily absorbed and lays down a protective barrier therefore holding moisture in. Wonderful emollient when added to soap or lotion. A very small percentage of the population *is* allergic to lanolin. Average usage is 1-2% of your total oils, or 1 Tablespoon per pound of base oils. You can use cocoa butter or another hard oil to counteract the "stickiness" from the lanolin.

Lard - made from rendered pig fat. Lard is actually a good moisturizer for the skin, and a lot of soapers use lard because it is readily accessible at your local supermarket. Provides good lather and cleansing properties, but will make a soap too soft if used alone and is not easily soluble in cold water. Combine with other oils and it makes a very cost effective base oil.

Meadowfoam Oil - highly resistant to rancidity and lends those properties to other oils, extending their shelf life. An excellent moisturizer and can be used in soaps, creams, lotions, and cosmetics. Prevents moisture loss in the skin.

Neem Oil - used to treat a variety of skin problems including psoriasis, eczema, dandruff, etc. Has antibacterial, anti-fungal, and antiseptic properties. Used in pet soap shampoo bars to repel fleas and ticks. Can be used as a natural bug repellant in "people" soaps and lotions. Adds hardness and skin conditioning in soaps and is easy to saponify. Can be used in large amounts in a recipe - up to 40% of total oils, but the cost can be prohibitive.

Olive Oil - an excellent oil to use in soap as it is a moisturizer that forms a "breathable" layer on the skin, preventing loss of internal moisture. Produces small, silky bubbles and contributes hardness to the bar. Olive oil was used for centuries to make traditional 100% "castile" soap. May be used in any amount in a soap recipe, but soaps with high amounts of olive oil *do* take longer to bring to trace and will be softer initially after unmolding. *However* - olive oil makes a very hard, almost completely white bar after a few weeks that is worth the wait. Suitable for babies and even the most sensitive of skin. (Pomace olive oil is also used in soapmaking - it is less refined and will interfere with soap coloring unless you prefer the natural look.)

Palm Oil - made from the pulp of the fruit from the palm tree. When used in a combination with other oils, it makes a very hard bar of soap. It is very mild and cleans well, but does not offer much in the way of skin conditioning. Its lather is small and stingy if not used with other soaping oils. Palm helps pull other stubborn oils into saponification faster. Whereas you have to limit amounts of other oils that produce a hard bar (coconut and palm kernel for example), palm can be used as a large portion of your base oils. *Do* use it in combination with other oils though or your soap will be dry and brittle. Palm is the vegan alternative to using animal fats such as lard and tallow in soap. **Note** Palm separates into layers as it cools and must be melted and stirred before using in soap recipes, otherwise you may get inconsistent results.

Palm Kernel Oil - made from the kernels of the palm tree. Like coconut, palm kernel lathers well in almost any type of water. It lends to a very white, wonderfully lathering, hard bar of soap. If you use too much, it can be drying to the skin, but does offer moisturizing properties if used correctly. Average usage is 10 - 30% of your total base oils.

Shea Butter - also known as the African karite butter. It is expressed from the pits of the fruit of the African butter tree which grows in Central Africa. Fabulous for superfatting soaps to add moisture and nourish the skin. I LOVE shea butter! It's great stuff and if you haven't tried it, you must. High in unsaponifiables, therefore leaving lots of skin conditioning emollients in your soap. Average usage is 2 - 5% of your total recipe. Too much can cause the soap to be "sticky" feeling.

Soybean Oil or Shortening - used as an alternative to animal fats in soap. Adds mildness, lots of fluffy lather, and is moisturizing when used in combination with other oils. Used alone, it would produce a soap that is too soft. Some people use Crisco or generic shortening which also contains cottonseed oil. I have found to get consistent results in soapmaking, 100% soy shortening works best and produces a harder bar than Crisco. Soy is cost effective when used as a base oil for added bulk in a soap recipe.

Sunflower Oil - rich in vitamin E, provides skin conditioning for dry skin. Can be used as an added emollient or as a larger portion of your recipe, however it can make the soap too soft if used in too high a percentage. Slow to saponify, so use with other oils to help speed things along. Average usage is up to 15% of your total oils.

Tallow - rendered beef fat. Provides little skin conditioning, but adds to the mildness and hardness of the soap. Easily saponified, readily available at your local grocer or butcher, and cheap. Also has a distinctive odor that can be difficult to mask. If you'll read the label on commercial detergent bars, sodium tallowate is normally one of the leading ingredients - that's the proper scientific name for saponified tallow. Most pioneer soaps were made with tallow as well.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Fri May 18, 2012 10:00 am 
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Homemade lye is very iffy. There is no accurate way you can test for strength unless you titrate each and every batch. That's beyond most of us that make soap for sale at home. My grandmother made soap with homemade ash solution and sometimes the soap came out lye heavy. If you are planning to sell, I strongly suggest that you purchase commercial lye.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Mon May 21, 2012 8:50 am 
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Location: Mistress Of Lather
CP = Cold Process
HP = Hot Process
GM = Goat's Milk

Sodium Hydroxide for solid soaps
Potassium Hydroxide for liquid soap
A combo of the two for cream soap

M&P = Melt & Pour
RTCP = Room Temperature Cold Process (Hot lye solution added to room temp oils)
CPOP = Cold Process Oven Process (forcing gel stage in a warm oven)
A or Acc. = Acceleration
D = Discoloration
DOS = Dreaded Orange Spots (Shows up on a soap when an oils has turned rancid)
TD = Titanium Dioxide
EO = Essential Oil
FO = Fragrance Oil

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PostPosted: Tue Nov 27, 2012 7:47 pm 
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Always calculate your recipe with a lye calculator. Mistakes online happen and in books too. Calculate everything right up front. Add ALL your oils or butters right up front. Adding any oils or butters at trace is an old wife's tale. Lye at trace is VERY active and it will take whatever it wants. There is no guarantee that any particular oil or butter will end up as your superfat in cold process soap.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Thu Feb 28, 2013 2:08 pm 
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You're looking for a good conditioning oil - so high in Oleic and/or high Oleic & Linoleic combination of fatty acids.

Here are some common OO substitutes:
Apricot Kernel Oil (up to 5-10% of recipe)
Avocado Oil (up to 5-30% of recipe)
Almond Oil, Sweet (up to 5-10% of recipe)
Canola (up to 5-15% of recipe) - slows trace so nice for swirling

Less common substitutes that I've seen:
Rice Bran (up to 5-25% of recipe)
Safflower (up to 5-15% of recipe) - can go rancid
Sunflower (up to 5-25% of recipe) - slows trace so nice for swirling
Soybean (up to 5-20% of recipe)

Here are some oil property resources:
Soaping Oil/Butter Properties PDF file (http://www.naturesgardencandles.com/mas ... apoils.pdf
Properties of Oils Spreadsheet PDF file http://millersoap.com/PDF/OilProperties.pdf
Soapmaking Oil Chart http://www.lovinsoap.com/oils-chart/
Soap Making Oils / Formulating a Recipe http://www.soap-making-essentials.com/s ... -oils.html

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

PostPosted: Thu May 02, 2013 7:08 pm 
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Melting points of some oils and waxes.

Castor wax 188.6F (87C)
Carnuaba 180-187F
Sunflower Wax 160-170F (74-77C)
stearic acid 156F (69 ºC)
ozokerite wax 152F-162F
Candellila 152-161F
Cera Bellina (INCI: Polyglycerol-3 Beeswax) is 145F- 163F (63-73C)
Beeswax 142-147F
Soy Wax 113-122F
Cetyl Alcohol 129F 49C
Palm Oil hydrogenated 106-110F
Palm Oil rbd kosher 100-108F (33-39C)
Virgin Palm Oil (Red Palm Oil) 84-93F (29-34C)
Kokum 97-99F
Mango Butter 101-102F
Cocoa Butter 93-100F
Shea Butter 89-95F
Palm Kernel Oil 73-84F (23–29C)

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 19, 2013 6:16 pm 
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Adding colors. This is what is the easiest for me.

Oxides start with "O". they are oil soluble, so mix them with oils.
Ultramarines have the word "marine" which is water. Add this to water and mix well.
Micas I pre-hydrate in some glycerin, so I don't get the speckles. Some people mix these with a little bit of oil.

If it's only one color, I add the color to the oils. If it's multiple colors, I separate the soap at thin trace, add the color, then swirl or layer in the mold.

Closed minds are like faulty parachutes; they refuse to open.

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